Robert Rauschenberg 


Robert Rauschenberg (born Milton Ernst Rauschenberg; October 22, 1925 – May 12, 2008) was an American artist who came to prominence in the 1950's transition from Abstract Expressionism to Pop Art.

Rauschenberg is perhaps most famous for his "Combines" of the 1950s, in which non-traditional materials and objects were employed in innovative combinations. While the Combines are both painting and sculpture, Rauschenberg also worked with photography, printmaking, papermaking, and performance. Rauschenberg picked up trash and found objects that interested him on the streets of New York City and brought these back to his studio where they could become integrated into his work. He claimed he "wanted something other than what I could make myself and I wanted to use the surprise and the collectiveness and the generosity of finding surprises. And if it wasn't a surprise at first, by the time I got through with it, it was. So the object itself was changed by its context and therefore it became a new thing."

In 1953 in a famously cited incident, Rauschenberg erased a drawing by de Kooning. In 1964, Rauschenberg was the first American artist to win the Grand Prize at the Venice Biennale (Mark Tobey and James Whistler had previously won the Painting Prize). After that time, he enjoyed a rare degree of institutional support. Rauschenberg lived and worked in New York City and on Captiva Island, Florida until his death on May 12, 2008, from heart failure.



1925 Born on October 22 in Port Arthur, Texas

1948 Studied at the Académie Julian, Paris

1946 - 1949 Studied at the Kansas City Art Institute

1949 Studied at the Black Mountain College in North Carolina under Josef Albers where he meets Merce Cunningham and John Cage

1949 - 1952 Meets Cy Twombly at the Art Students League in New York

1952 - 1953 Travels to Europe and North Africa with Cy Twombly

1953 Creates Automobile Tire Print (with John Cage) and Erased de Kooning Drawing

1953 Meets Jasper Johns with whom he is considered the most influential of artists who reacted against Abstract Expressionism. The two artists had neighboring studios, regularly exchanging ideas and discussing their work, until 1961

1958 - 1960 Illustrations based on Dante's Inferno

1964 Grand prize in painting at the Venice Biennale

1985 - 1991 "ROCI" - Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange



2008 Robert Rauschenberg: Runts, PaceWildenstein, New York City, NY

2008 Robert Rauschenberg, Artist-Citizen: Posteres for a Better World, Bob Rauschenberg Gallery, Ft. Myers, FL

2007 "Selected Works 1974 - 1999", Michael Schultz Gallery, Berlin (catalogue)

2007 "Rauschenberg. Express," Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid

2007 "Nothing and everything," Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco, CA

2007 "Robert Rauschenberg: Cardboards and Related Pieces," The Menil Collection, Houston, TX

2007 "Robert Rauschenberg," Moderna Museet, Stockholm

2006 "Robert Rauschenberg," Centre Pompidou - Musée National d´Art Moderne, Paris

2006 "Robert Rauschenberg," Gallery Hyundai, Seoul

2006 "Robert Rauschenberg," MOCA THE GEFFEN CONTEMPORARY, Los Angeles, CA; MOCA Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, CA

2006 "Robert Rauschenberg: Spread and Scale," Galerie Jamileh Weber, Zurich

2006 "Art from Life: Prints by Robert Rauschenberg," Cantor Arts Center at Stanford University, Stanford, CA

2006 "Focus Room. Robert Rauschenberg," Tate Liverpool, Liverpool, England

2006 "Robert Rauschenberg: Scenarios and Short Stories," Jepson Center for the Arts, Savannah, GA

2006 "Rauschenberg: Prints," Jim Kempner Fine Art, New York, NY

2005 "Rauschenberg - Rosenquist - Lichtenstein," Bernard Jacobson Gallery, London, England

2005 "Robert Rauschenberg," Galerie Terminus, Munich

2005 "Dialogues: Duchamp, Cornell, Johns, Rauschenberg," Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, TX

2005 "Robert Rauschenberg: on and off the wall," MUSÉE D'ART MODERNE ET D'ART CONTEMPORAIN-NICE, Nice

2005 "Combines" organized by The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles in association with The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

2004 "Robert Rauschenberg: Current Scenarios," Wadsworth Museum of Art, Hartford

2004 "Mostly Photography - Art since 1980 from the Collection," Williams College Museum of Art, Williamstown, MA

2004 "What's modern? Gagosian Gallery, New York, NY

2004 "Made in USA popart," Galerie Laurent Strouk, Paris

2004 "Robert Rauschenberg," Bernard Jacobson Gallery, London, England

2004 "15 Minutes of Fame: 20 Years of Pop Prints," National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, VIC

2004 "Robert Rauschenberg," John Berggruen Gallery, San Francisco, CA

2003 "Popular, Pop & Post-Pop: Color Screenprints 1930s to Now," Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA

2003 "Robert Rauschenberg - Prints & Unique Work," Jim Kempner Fine Art, New York, NY

2002 "X-LARGE - Borofsky, Burden, Johns, Kelly, Lichtenstein, Rauschenberg, Serra, Ste," Brooke Alexander Editions, New York, NY

2002 "An American Legacy, A Gift to New York," Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY

2002 "Robert Rauschenberg - Les dix dernières années," Musée Maillol - Fondation Dina Vierny, Paris

2002 "Robert Rauschenberg - Short Stories," Waddington Galleries, London (England)

2002 "Robert Rauschenberg: Recent Work," The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

2001 "Modernism & Abstraction: Treasures from the Smithsonian American Art Museum," Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, MA

2001 "ROBERT RAUSCHENBERG - RUMINATIONS," völcker & freunde gallery, Berlin

2001 "Robert Rauschenberg: Marrakech," La Caja Negra, Madrid

2001 "Robert Rauschenberg: Short Stories," Galerie Jamileh Weber, Zurich

2000 "Robert Rauschenberg - Darryl Pottorf," Galerie Tanit, Munich

2000 "Robert Rauschenberg - Synapsis Shuffle," Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY

2000 "Highlights of Late 20th-Century Art from the Sydney and Frances Lewis Collection," Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, VA

1999 "Robert Rauschenberg - Malerei," Galleri Faurschou, Copenhagen

1999 "Robert Rauschenberg - Obra gráfica (1967-1979)," Museo de Arte Abstracto Español, Cuenca

1999 "Robert Rauschenberg - The 1/4 Mile or 2 Furlong Piece," Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, North Adams, MA

1999 "Robert Rauschenberg - Photographs," Galleria Rubin, Milano

1998 "Robert Rauschenberg. Obra gráfica 1967-1979," Museu d'Art Español Contemporani (Fundación Juan March), Palma de Mallorca

1998 "Robert Rauschenberg - Retrospectiva," Museo Guggenheim de Arte Moderno y Contemporáneo, Bilbao

1998 "Robert Rauschenberg - Anagrams (A Pun)," Galerie Jamileh Weber, Zurich

1997 Retrospective at the Guggenheim Museum, New York in collaboration with the Menil Collection, Houston, Texas, exhibition travels to the Museum Ludwig, Cologne and the Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao

1990 Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

1987 The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1963 First retrospective organized by the Jewish Museum, New York

1951 First solo exhibition at the Betty Parsons gallery, New York